Services for People with Brain Injuries
Table of Contents
According to the world statistics, today, the brain injury is one of the most widely spread traumas. It can be caused by both congenital and external factors under different circumstances. In the majority of cases, it causes various types of disabilities (depending on the sector of the brain that is damaged) that limit the life of people in different ways. No matter what type of the brain injury occurs, it is necessary to provide proper care and organize one’s lifestyle accordingly in order to allow the person feel comfortable and not excluded from the society. There are various treatment factors, which may be applied toward the injured. They are rather individual as each brain is unique while the impacts are numerous depending on the level of damage. Usually, the main changes a person with the injured brain undergoes are of behavioral, physical, and cognitive nature. Some individuals may have problems with thinking, generating ideas, and revealing them understandably and clearly, as well as with the information acceptance and its processing. Serious issues with memory also may occur. For instance, a person with the damaged brain may suffer from memory losses for some period. Additionally, various emotions, which used to be rather unusual for an individual previously, may appear. Physical signs of brain injuries such as difficulties with controlling coordination, gestures, and balance may cause considerable problems with movement. The recovery period may last from few days to entire life. That is why, it is crucial to create and implement a program, which will support and assist the disabled people in their desire to live a full life and find a place within society. These people need to be supported but not isolated; in this case only, they will feel inspired to fight back the disease. The purpose of the program outlined in the paper is to provide proper conditions for the implementation of the project, which will let the disabled work (if possible) with the healthy people. Thankfully, today numerous regulations, rules, and laws concerning the issues of providing and ensuring all the necessary conditions have been created. The paper explains what issues should be addressed while working out the problem of the brain injury viewed through the prism of individualistic approach that is, however, based on a general plan of actions to be applied in each case separately.
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Administration of any project or company is one of the most significant issues, which sets the mechanism and ensures functionality. With the development of numerous rehabilitation and participation programs, the government spends much money on their development and implementation (Soldner, Upton, & Dunlap, 2009). To be more precise, the report by Soldner et al. (2009) states that the annual budget for rehabilitation in the US reaches 4 billion dollars. However, with the great number of patients, who require support due to considerable variety of possible disabilities, one should understand that the budget has to be planned wisely and cover a maximum number of rehabilitated patients with the possibly minimal expenses. A successful administrative consideration means – “to balance research and clinical practices;” hence, it will be easier to allocate funds and personnel (Soldner et al. 2009). The main purpose of administration is to take effective decisions on how to provide proper care to a person by introducing new strategies and evidence-based practice that, subsequently, will promote organization’s significance in the sphere (Soldner et al. 2009).
The best way to organize everything properly is to employ a well-educated staff along with allowing people with brain injuries to work and not only participate in a program. People, who have suffered some injury at their previous work, because of domestic violence or accidents have to show an example of self-confidence and ability to struggle by being among those, who run the program. Moreover, such participation may help distract their mind from the main source of problems and help decide whether the problem is real or rather psychosomatic. It is necessary to establish a team of professionals, who are willing to share their experience in the sphere of brain injuries and disabilities and implement different types of projects and seminars, as well as explain the problem and its solutions.
The administration should closely cooperate with other companies and institutions with similar or quite close vision and aims, as well as with the patients, who will be ready to be treated as important participants of the program and not ill people (SIGN, 2013). It should be noted that numerous institutions provide services in both physical treatment and psychological support. Post-hospital procedures on one’s mental state are inextricably linked to the body. It is also worth mentioning that by creating chances for the disabled individuals with brain injuries, such patients will receive possibilities to work in the society; however, it depends on whether a company is willing to engage or not.
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Ethics and Law
Scientists claim that careful human subject research has to be carried out in order to develop and improve the current state of healthcare, on the basis of new data on different matters (Wittchen et al., 2011). However, during the research, some people might not understand what exactly they are undergoing.
The most important issue in terms of both ethics and law is that once a person receives both experimental and traditional treatment, consequences can be negative. For this purpose, the US has developed and adopted Federal Regulations. These rules and requirements concerning various medical procedures are very strict; they protect people with disabilities and outline numerous demands concerning the issue of the brain injuries (Pape, Jaffe, Savage, Collins, & Warden, 2004). As far as this individuals are considered a vulnerable population, the demand for even stronger protection is growing (Pape et al., 2004). The Common Rule is a document, which regulates medical actions applied toward the human subject, which is believed to appear due to the events that took place during the Nazi period when people suffered horrible tortures (Pape et al., 2004). Since that time, medical experiments have been acknowledged as crimes on the basis of racial discrimination.
The ethical matter of the situation is bothering. The society is advised to pay particular attention to the disabled people but treat them as equal. Such a combination is quite complicated as not all cases of disabilities can let one work or even communicate. Numerous programs are developed in order to meet the needs of individuals suffering brain injuries (Frieden, Houry, & Baldwin, 2014). The disabled are advised to spend more time communicating with different people in order to be able to keep on with their life despite the injury (Soldner et al., 2009). At the same time, the behavior of people that communicate with these patients has to correspond to the established norms that would exclude any type of discrimination. Therefore, the organization of the service supporting people with disabilities should definitely include special ethics-related lectures that would inform all the stakeholders about decent norms of behavior and communication. Providing life examples of failures and their consequences at such lecture can be very effective for informing people about the most common problems than they can face.
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It is necessary to undergo different types of rehabilitation programs in order to have a chance to live a life of a full member of society (Frieden & Collins, 2013). In this situation, the community is expected to provide proper treatment and support for obtaining better results. This kind of collaboration may promote the recovery process, as well as inspire brain-injured individuals for the future. Feeling this support may also result in curing or mitigating the disease (Frieden & Collins, 2013). Instead, improper treatment can become a serious negative influence on the vulnerable mind of the disabled. Even without the exterior influences, disability is a real burden for a person; anxiety, depression, drug dependencies, insomnia, or other aggravation of the symptoms are inadmissible to the normal life (Wittchen et al., 2011). In such a way, proper attention to ethical issues in working with the disabled people is a crucial factor that can become both a mean of avoiding problems and a key to the person’s recovery.
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Managing Conflicts at Workplace and in Family Life
Situations, when the brain injured individual is working with the healthy people, are rather widespread (Stock, 2011). Some employers, when refusing to hire the disabled due to their injury, may face legal actions as it is considered a kind of discrimination. However, sometimes the conflicts arise due to the disease; usually, the society may not understand that it happens because of objective reasons. A person with the injury may have a different reaction, not accepted by the rest, for example, loss of attention, anxiety, depression, aggressive behavior, or sudden sadness (SIGN, 2013). That is why, it is better to show support than annoyance and isolation to avoid conflicts at all. Nevertheless, all the workers have to be informed about such conflict-free policy. Moreover, specific training should take place in order to teach the service worker effective practices of avoiding or tackling conflicts.
Most people suffering from the brain injuries are allowed to have home rehabilitation for obtaining more care from their family members (Patient & Family, 2012). However, the one, who takes care of the injured, should not forget about his or her life. Otherwise, any dissatisfaction with life may have a negative influence on the overall mental state of a caregiver, as well as an inclination to hurt others. For such a purpose, numerous organizations hold special events, at which family members can communicate and share the same experiences, discuss some issues, and find even stronger support from the outside (Patient & Family, 2012). Having a possibility to discuss problems and understanding that there are those, who are in a similar situation, are quite effective to avoid conflicts and develop the best ways to solve them.
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Techniques for Supporting a Patient with the Brain Injury
The best technique to apply is to lavish warmth, love, and support upon a brain-injured person; however, it is also crucial to let him or her enjoy life. One should not take too much care as it may result in an even worse psychological state (Frieden & Collins, 2013). Therefore, an effective technique for an individual with the brain injury is the art therapy. This activity has been proven to be one of the best ways to reveal one’s emotions and express the inside world. Secondly, the family members may also try to communicate and cooperate with each other (SIGN, 2013).
Another advice is to spend more time somewhere close to nature. If there is a chance to leave the city for some time, one should take it. The brain-injured people’s rehabilitation process includes different outside activities: sport games, swimming, and running, for example. These activities develop patients’ perception of the world and ensure they are not afraid of the surrounding environment, unfamiliar people and animals (Connor et al., 2011).
Taking care and developing an individual also includes demonstrating different images and photos to in order to call for their emotion and cause different reactions (Connor et al., 2011). Moreover, role-plays are another activity used for developing the brain not only in people with injuries. This technique may teach a person how to communicate properly and how to behave in different situations if such or similar ones may happen in real life.
In order to develop logical thinking and speaking skills, a person may be asked to describe what he or she was doing that day and recall all the events one by one; memory can be also trained by demonstrating different images in a certain order and asking to put them correctly afterwards (Connor et al., 2011). If there are some mumbling or any other issues, it is crucial to ask for repeating and make corrections or to explain why it is wrong (Connor et al., 2011).
In order to develop thinking, a person may be asked to present his or her plan of action for a certain period. Hence, firstly, a caregiver can start with something small, for example, a half-a-day plan. This activity is very useful if the injured person has difficulties with creating a logical sequence of events or has problems with memory (Connor et al., 2011). It helps to develop organizational skills, as well as train abilities to solve different problems, which is very important while fighting the disability (Connor et al., 2011). Finally, one may ask a person to create either a short- or long-term project. The topic and the rules of the project can be either provided or personally chosen. However, asking to provide some short reports on certain issues concerning is effective for developing a feeling of responsibility, as well as desire to improve the project.
Applying other than the medical treatment is a must if there is a desire to succeed and recover from the injury. Consequently, everyone does his or her best and fight for the better. Arranging everything in such a way can be very effective and can cause better results for both the injured and the surrounding society.
Despite certain psychological, cognitive, or physical problems, the brain-injured people have the same rights as those without these issues. It is very likely that most of them need attention and support, not compassion and sympathy from people around. It is important to make them feel healthy by living and enjoying their life. The purpose of the program is to provide proper conditions for the implementation of the project, which will let the disabled people work in the society. Administrations are advised to cooperate and, hence, should develop and implement different approaches when the issue concerns the disabled. Their role in implementing an effective rehabilitation process and providing proper services will result in promotion and improvement of this kind of help. Any conflicts with this category of people due to their disease are easy to avoid. It is only necessary to show some respect and understanding. Family members are expected to support these individuals; however, the caregivers should not forget about themselves. Numerous techniques applied in the rehabilitation show that the brain injury does not stop one’s life but makes it a bit different. Friends and family may also participate and make their daily routine interesting and exciting. One should not be afraid to behave in a way that the society will not understand. There exist a great number of things you can do and engage; they will help move forward and succeed in resisting the disease. No matter how much strength it may need, the result is what truly matters.