Call back
 

Organization Theory, Bureaucracy, and Public Management in a Time of Major Transformational Changes

Free «Organization Theory, Bureaucracy, and Public Management in a Time of Major Transformational Changes» Essay Sample

Management of public organizations has raised discussions among various parties, ranging from scholars, researchers, public officials, and managers to heads of various public institutions. Public management is directed towards public sector organizations which are multi-functional and follow a leadership style that is political in nature. Moreover, most organizations in the field do not operate in an external market. Therefore, management of public sector organizations is fundamentally unique. Public management, which is anchored on the fields of public administration and management, has become more significant following the rapid changes that take place in public organizations that are overseeing the transformation of these organizations. In understanding the current public management approach, assessing the various organizational theories that guide their management is crucial. Bureaucracy, which is one of the main organizational theories that has been associated with public organizations, has structured itself in a manner that demands understanding its role in the management of public organizations. The thesis for the work is that public management in a time of major transformational changes is essential for public organizations as it fosters the process of determining how these organizations will manage change. Knowledge in organization theory, such as bureaucracy that is most commonly utilized in public sector, will be critical for successful change implementation.

 

Title of your paper
?
Type of assignment
?
Number of pages
?
Urgency
?
Academic Level
?
Spacing
?

Organization Theory

In-depth knowledge in organization theory can facilitate understanding the working process of public organizations and their productivity among other benefits. Waldo (1961) presents an interesting perception of organization theory. The scholar explains this theoretical domain using the parable of an elephant and three blind men in which each man describes the elephant depending on the part of the animal he is holding. In Waldo’s (1961) view, organization theory is an elephantine problem whereas organization is a complex idea. For this reason, it is not possible for any observer to comprehend it thoroughly. Overall, Waldo’s (1961) argument does not necessarily mean that authors of organization theory approach the phenomenon in a wrong way, but rather their understanding of the theory is not complete since they only understand its single aspect. All in all, organization theory has been developed through the research findings of various scholars and researchers over the years. Putting together these authors and researchers’ ideas is essential in assembling the ‘elephant’ into becoming a whole thereby making everyone’s perception of organization theory holistic. Some of the key organizational theories considered significant in management of public organizations are discussed below.

Elite Theory of Organization

The elite theory of organization represents a neglected area of organization theory. To be more precise, theorists have overlooked discussions of a strategic position of elites who are responsible for setting long-term directions for organizations. Further, theorists have in equal measure avoided placing a focus on such issues as power, control, and politics in administration of organizational operations. Thus, developing the elite theory is essential in multidimensional research of modern organization and administration that is significant in filling the gap in the present literature on the topic (Farazmand, 1999).

According to Farazmand (1999), elite theory of organization has some implications on organization theory at large. This assumption facilitates the normative aspects of organizational theory which have been disregarded. The actual situation of organizations is that they do not operate in vacuum but under elites. These elites are a small group of people whose decisions impact organizations and the individuals around their environment. Another implication of this theory is that it allows for discussion of normative aspects of organizations which is critical and necessary since political factors are instrumental in determining organizational goals, operations, and processes. Therefore, understanding elites and their roles in organizations is vital in understanding the working environment of organizations.

Benefit from Our Service: Save 25% Along with the first order offer - 15% discount, you save extra 10% since we provide 300 words/page instead of 275 words/page

Order now
Help

Chaos and Transformation Theories

Chaos and transformational theories have emerged to be new currencies in management as asserted by Farazmand (2003). Despite this fact, the relevance of these hypotheses to organizational theory is yet to be determined because they are still in the process of  developement. Nonetheless, chaos and transformational theories can be used to understand organization theory since they continue to have significant implications on governance and administration within an organization (Farazmand, 2003).

The implications of chaos and transformational theories no organizational theory are as follows. Firstly, the chaos theories presents a perception that organizations as open systems have an ability to produce within themselves through their internal components which are forces of dissipative structures with self-organizing capabilities. Secondly, organization theory has over time evolved from a classical closed system that existed in the early twentieth century in a form of bureaucracy, structural, and formal designs to new forms of organizational change that are characterized by instability, systems breakdown, and chaotic changes which are making organizations dynamic. Another aspect of the analyzed theory is that it involves systems theory. Chaos and transformation theories depart from systems theory in that they thrive on none-equlibrium and chaotic events, while systems theory suppresses forces of chaos, disturbing system equiblibria as opined by Farazmand (2003). Chaos and transformation theories also have an implication on understanding public organizations. In this regard, they can be used to explain current chaotic changes and trends persistent in the management of public organizations. In general, chaos and transformtional theories are significant in keeping organizations healthy, alert, and adaptive by enabling them to anticipate chaotic changes. Thus, they make complex organizations manageable and dynamic simultaneously.

Bureaucracy

According to Farazmand (2002), bureaucracy is an old approach to governance and administration which has survived millennia of political and social changes emanating from the dawn of civilization as a difficult governance concept. Farazmand (2010) affirms that the survival and persistence of bucreaucracy has been tested over time and in each instance, this phenomenon has emerged strong and unwavering in its role in governace. Some of the circumstances, through which bureaucracy has emerged steadfast, include changes and upheaveals, disater and crisis, as well as instability and disorder in organizations. In explaining the meaning of bureacracy, Marx (1967) perceives this concept as a web of practical illusions or the illusions of the state. the theorist explains this assumption further by making the claim of the spirit of bureacracy which  is jesuitical and theological in nature. Thus according to Marx (1967), bureacracy is the priest’s republic, while bureacucrats are the state’s jesuits and theologians.

Top 30
writers

Get the most experienced writer in the relevant discipline!

Hire a TOP writer for $10.95

Understanding how bureaucracy works entails understanding its nature. This notion is characterized by hierarchy which follows a chain of command. In this regard, the management approach entails selection of a few people who are placed at the top of the hierarchy and tasked with running the organization. Therefore, the chain of command trickles downwards that results in a number of sub-levels each run by several individuals. Marx (1967) reiterates this perspective of bureaucracy when he affirms that the hierarchy of bureaucracy is a hierarchy of information. Based on this rationale, the top entrusts lower circles with an insight in details while the lower circles entrust the higher circles with insight into what is universal. Peters (2010) explains that, in enforcement of bureaucracy, people who work under a few placed at the top of the hierarchy usually have no say in the working processes of an organization, such as policies. Thus, decisions are made by several individuals at the top of hierarchy, and then, passed down the sub-levels for implementation. Hence, in today’s public organizations and management, bureaucracy works through coordination of work processes which have been broken down into fragments, namely departments. Further on, bureaucracy also is practiced by breaking down work into repetitive tasks in a bid to make them simple.

VIP
support

VIP support services: extra attention is guaranteed!

Hire a VIP support for $9.99

Over recent years, bureaucracy has gained a negative reputation in its role in organization of public governance and administration. These are the times when bureaucracy has completely failed and no longer worked for organizations. One such situations is when this framework has caused organizations to spend more time on paper work instead of focusing on actual work. According to Waldo (1992), bureaucracy tends to insist on the documentation of organizational procures. For this reason, it reduces efficiency of the entire organization as the low level employees use up time in doing paper work. Moreover, this theoretical assumption is associated with red tape which slows down work since permission has to be sought for everything that an employee does in the process of accomplishing their tasks. Thus, bureaucracy has come to have a negative impact on motivation and meaningfulness of work in organizations.

Additionally, the nature of bureaucracy has been slowly changing, especially in public organizations. One change that has been taking place in bureaucracy is decentralization of decision making as a basic principle of an organization. This transformation has been accomplished through delegation of central authority of public services to autonomous agencies. Following Peters (2010), centralization of power in bureaucracy refers to concentration of power among a few elites at the top of an organization’s structure as a way to reduce the layers of bureaucracy. Another significant change that is taking place in bureaucracy is decrease of number of rules and standard operating procedures. In this way, management  attempt to reduce the level of red tape that bureaucracy brings in order to increase efficiency in public organizations. What is more, relative efficacy of bureaucratic personnel systems that constitutes task specialization and sequential processing are also changing. Human resource management practices These processes have  superseded these processes in many organizations, such as self-management, control-based job design, and reduced distinctions in status and barriers in various organizational levels.

Affiliate Program: Earn 10%

from all orders made by people you bring.

Your people also get 17% discount for their first order.
 

Public Management in a Time of Major Transformational Changes

Rainey (2014) opines that major transformational changes have been taking place in public organizations. One significant transformational change that has taken place in public organizations, and thus, influenced their management is restructuring the organizational structure. This procedure has been implemented through reduction of layers in organization’s structure. As a result, organizations have become flatter and smaller as they are now organized more on value-creating processes. Organizational reconfiguration is yet another relevant transformational change in public management. In this respect, most public organizations are making changes to their leadership structure by reconfiguring their structure of command. Thus, most public organizations have become decentralized in nature with power expanded to many sectors and people in the organization. Process improvement is one more transformational change that has enabled organizations to identify, analyze, and improve their existing organizational processes for the sake of optimization and meeting new standards of quality. This transition has been practiced through benchmarking. This reform has allowed organizations to focus on different areas of improvement and use different methods to achieve favorable results.

5 % off

For more than

30 pages
10 % off

For more than

50 pages
15 % off

For more than

100 pages
 

Most of these changes have been working as evidenced by the positive impact they have had on public organizations. For instance, organizational learning and innovation  as well as flexibility in these organizations have improved. To illustrate, restructuring the  organizations and reducing layers has been essential in making communication  and  accomplishment of tasks easier. The changes have also resulted in improved productivity. For example, process improvement has been effective in automating some of the processes of organizations, thus fostering the enhancement of productivity. This circumstance has further resulted in customer satisfaction and loyalty since increased productivity leads to better service delivery.

However, the impact of these transformational changes has not always been positive. Some of the changes have caused problems for the public organizations. One such problem is employee resistance. Some of the changes have proven to be too rapid for employees of many of these organizations. As a consequence, despite the changes taking place, numerous staff members resist in their adaptation. Another problem in this context is increased confusion as a consequence of the hasty nature of changes. This factor has prevented many of the affected parties from preparing for a change and further prevented dissemination of information and sufficient training that would have helped to easier transition. Moreover, one more relevant problem is loss of jobs and a resulting impact on the economy. While organizations are busy reconfiguring and restructuring, they cause decrease in some positions in organizations. For this reason, these processes cause redundancy which is likely to lead to loss of  jobs to many people in spite of the overall efficiency it brings to the organization.

Attractive plagiarism check
option: ensure your papers
are authentic!

Order&Check

Therefore, these problems instigated by reforms taking place in public administration require specified solutions. This issue is significant  in restoring effectiveness in public organizations which has been undermined in a sufficient manner. First and foremost, the problem of employee resistance can be overcome by including them in the process of developing and implementing a change. Making staff members feel a notable part of the process is effective and entices them to accept the change. On the other hand, the problem of increased level of confusion should be handled by carrying out training with regard to adapting to the ongoing changes. Moreover, organizations need to spread awareness about the change by providing sufficient information to the parties affected by the process. The issue of job loss can be managed by organizations through filling the vacancies of employees who are likely to lose their jobs, and changing nature of work by allowing job sharing among other options.

Conclusion

Organization theory is essential in comprehending how organizations function. For proper understanding of organization theory, it is vital to combine all information on the issue. This step should be undertaken in order to prevent people thinking that the knowledge they have of organization theory may result in limiting them on opportunities offered by organizations. Bureaucracy is an example of an organizational theory that is fundamental to running public organizations. This approach is characterized by a hierarchy of chain of command which facilities centralization of performance. The framework has not too effective in some instances because of its negative impact in a form of red tape which slows down work progress and too much paper work which has a similar effect. The current nature of bureaucracy is changing with power becoming decentralized and reduced chain of command. In addition, public management is critical for transformational changes taking place in public organizations. Although the process is never smooth due to problems occurring as a consequence of some of the changes, seeking effective solutions to these problems is vital for organizations.

 

Absolute Confidentiality

Our company never discloses clients’ personal information to anyone.

 

Original Papers

Every paper is protected against plagiarism by specialized plagiarism detection software.

 

Timely Delivery to Beat any Deadline

Simply put, we do not miss deadlines even the tightest ones.

 

24/7 Customer Support

Whenever questions arise, feel free to get in touch with us during day and night.

Buy Essays Online from Us to Resolve Your Academic Challenges

Cannot write an ordinary essay or a complex thesis or dissertation by yourself? Do not worry since we have online solutions for every client. We are the most credible writing company where you can order an academic paper of any type. Whether you want to buy essays online, short-answer questions assignments, reaction papers, book reports, or any other projects, contact our academic writing agency. We know that students often face tough challenges through the academic years and want to help them ease their burden.

 

It is no secret that students are obliged to submit numerous writing tasks, which are a part of their educational curriculum. If you are one of those students who experience troubles while creating memos, research papers, concept maps and other pieces of writing, you may become extremely worried about the outcome, especially if the deadline is fast-approaching and instructions are perplexing. Our professional essay writers can help you handle your assignments and improve your final grades. So, do not hesitate to ask us for writing assistance.

We are here to help those desperate students who would like to get a perfectly written term paper, dissertation chapter, synopsis, grant proposal or any other work with completely authentic content. We do understand that the submission of plagiarized academic writing projects may lead to negative consequences such as unsatisfactory grades or even suspension from an educational establishment. In case you do not know how to create original content, order custom essays online from us. The qualified and professional essay writers comprising our team are experts in producing authentic texts. They always write papers from scratch and make proper citations, which means top-notch academic writing material is guaranteed. Thus, buy essay paper writing at Express-Essays.com if you desire to receive impeccable projects.

 

Title of your paper
?
Type of assignment
?
Number of pages
?
Urgency
?
Academic Level
?
Spacing
?

Buy Essay Paper Writing and Enjoy a Variety of Services Offered

Since students are assigned the tasks and projects of diverse nature, they strive to find the online company that can provide them with not only an essay writing service but also a spectrum of others that could help them cope with their assignments. Express-Essays.com is the company that offers a broad range of professional essay services. Some of them are listed below:

  • Professional essay editing. You have produced your custom essay but you are unsure whether it is correct in terms of sentence construction, clarity of text, etc. No problem! Submit your essay online to us and expect to be delivered a flawless work.
  • Valuable rewriting. We can reword any type of text. Thus, do not delay submitting your paper to us. Be confident that the rewritten document will be focused on the same topic and deliver the same messages as the original one.
  • Great formatting. Whether you buy essays online from us or the papers of other kinds, be certain that the citation style indicated in the order form will be applied correctly. We are conversant with all formats.
  • Remarkable proofreading. If you hesitate about being able to correct all punctuation errors, misspelled words, typos, etc. in your piece of writing, hire our proofreaders. They can easily spot all mistakes and correct them.

Regardless of the custom essay service you intend to use, you can be confident tha the final output will be outstanding since we are the experts focused on superb results. We realize that education matters a lot to you and it is not always easy to reach the objectives which you have defined for yourself. However, our custom essay writing team is here to assist you in the best way possible. So, do not panic if you don’t have a clue about how to create a powerful custom essay. Instead, turn to us to use our remarkable essay writing service.

Huge Discounts for Loyal Customers Who Regularly Order Custom Essays Online from Us

5%off

For more than

30 pages

 

10%off

For more than

50 pages

 

15%off

For more than

100 pages

 
 

Continue placing orders on our website and you will be provided with generous discounts for your loyalty. The discount rate depends on the number of pages ordered. The increasing number of orders presumes the rise of discounts from 5% to 15%. For example, if you buy 30 pages in total, you will receive a 5% discount on the future orders. In case you purchase 50 pages in total, you will get an opportunity of receiving a 10% discount on your next orders. When your assignments total 100 pages, you will be offered a 15% discount on the next orders. The most interesting fact is that such type of discount is called “life-time” and you will have an opportunity to use it as much as you need. Try our essay writing service now!

Why Should I Order an Essay from Your Website?

Have you ever thought about the cases when you cannot cope with a huge amount of home tasks and numerous academic papers that have to be written within a short time frame, whereas some other students get the best grades with ease? It is no longer a secret – they use online essay writing services and do not spend even a minute on writing boring essays and research papers.

When using a valuable academic writing service, one gets a wonderful opportunity to have some free time and manage it in their own way. Students get a chance to devote their attention to something other than studies. For example, they can take up a new hobby, try the kind of sports they have been dreaming of, enhance their personal development, etc. A worthy essay writing service is a great tool for those who want to make their academic life easier and more interesting. With a superb service at hand, students may stop bothering about the constant need of doing endless assignments, lab experiments, tests, etc.

If you also want to save your time and efforts just like other students in your class, make an order on our website and get numerous advantages:

Your paper will be assigned to the best writer, who specializes in your subject. It means that an expert writing specialist will complete your assignment according to your demands, so that you can get the desired grade.

You will have 48 hours (1-19 pages) or 30 days (20+ pages) for a free revision if you think that some requirements have not been followed by the writer. Please remember that this option requires keeping initial guidelines the same.

If you buy an essay online from our agency, be confident it will belong to you only. We never resell our clients’ orders as we value both their trust in us and our reputation. So, full ownership is granted!

On our website, you can buy essay papers at attractive prices that won’t hurt your budget. Just access our “Prices” page to see what rates we charge for different types of papers. Y0u can even determine the cost of your work before ordering it.

       

Use discount code first15 and

Get 15% OFF Your First Order!

 

Advantages of Cooperating with Our Professional Essay Writers

The question “Where to buy essays online?” is acute for a large number of students who cannot handle their assigned projects on their own. You have to be careful while choosing an agency to buy an essay paper online from, especially when it goes about some unknown online writing companies. There are more and more fraudulent providers on the Internet and students often become their victims by investing money into their scam services.

However, our company is known for providing a remarkable essay writing service. We have a big client base and we receive a lot of positive feedback on our work. We know how to satisfy customers’ demands and deliver superior quality services to every student.

If you buy an essay paper or that of any other kind from our online writing company, be certain that your professor will not even assume that it was written by another person. By using the writing service offered by our agency, you can confident of receiving a genuine paper written according to your specifications. You will not find a similar paper on the web, we guarantee!

One of the most important aspects to consider when choosing us to buy an essay online is our writers. We have a very strict hiring process since we want our writing team to comprise only highly knowledgeable and experienced specialists. We employ only the best writers on the writing market. Whenever you buy an essay or a complex dissertation, we will find the most suitable writer to accomplish your writing task.

We employ only professional essay writers who are degree holders and are able to take into consideration all customers’ needs. Here is a list of benefits you can gain if you hire one of our experts to write an essay online for you.

  • Your writer will carry out detailed research on your topic and gather all appropriate materials to make sure that your topic is covered fully.
  • The assigned expert will carefully analyze the collected data and determine the order of presenting it.
  • The specialist working on your assignment will structure it coherently so that it looks visually attractive and is easy to read.
  • Your writer will complete the given task according to the indicated citation style. Therefore, you no longer need to spend hours reading rules of formatting not to lose points for the paper.
  • If you buy essay papers on our website, have no doubts that it will contain all the required visual material, i.e. charts, tables, diagrams, etc.

If you want to write an essay or research paper on your own, you will have to spend many hours in the library and browse numerous online databases to find appropriate materials. However, our professional essay writers can do everything more effectively and according to the indicated deadline. So, buy essay assignments from us to ease your academic workload. You only have to place an online order.

 

Simple Ordering Process: Buy Essay Assignments with Ease!

 
 

Submityour paper details

 
 

Payfor the order

 
 

Downloadyour paper

 
 

Only a Few Clicks to Buy Essay Writing of Top Quality

The process of using our essay writing service is indeed rather simple. It requires our customers, who want to order an essay online from Express-Essays.com, to fill out a comprehensible form and that’s all. So, to buy essay paper writing from us, you need to:

  1. Provide broad guidelines about how to deal with your assignment. Indicate the deadline, topic, number of words, spacing, citation style, etc.
  2. Pay for your assignment. We offer several reliable payment methods which you can use to buy an essay online from us. Once the transaction is verified, your assignment will appear in our system.
  3. Communicate with your expert if required. We have created an effective system for online communication between our clients and writers. So, you can always send your specialist a message if such a need arises.
  4. Download your completed paper. Once your deadline expires, your assignment will be uploaded to your account at Express-Essays.com. Additionally, the copy of your completed project will be sent to your email.

So, why waste your time if you can order an essay from us and forget your worries and troubles? Our academic writing team is always ready to assist you in overcoming your academic difficulties. Thus, feel free to use our essay writing service to achieve the desired success!

 
     
Use disount code first15 and
GET 15% OFF YOUR FIRST ORDER!
Place your order now
X
Online - please click here to chat

Coherent Cookies Policy: our aim is customer satisfaction! We guarantee complete security, fully customized content and perfect services. Read more »

It’s Ok