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Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal Psychology

1. According to many scientists, delirium is a serious neurocognitive disorder, which brings many troubles to people who suffer from it. Barlow and Durant (2014, p. 544) define delirium as “impaired consciousness and cognition during the course of several hours or days”. The authors state that the disease belongs to the early-recognized neurocognitive disorders (Barlow & Durant, 2014, p. 544).  Heymann et al. (2010) indicate that delirium is a considerable complication for patients in intensive care unit since when untreated, it is associated with high mortality rates (p. 1584). Skrobik (2009, p. 585) states that delirium causes longer hospital stay, additional healthcare expenses and a significant decrease in quality of life. 

The causes of delirium are mostly external. They are similar to those that lead to brain function impairment, including trauma, drugs, medication and others (Barlow & Durant, 2014, p. 544). Barlow and Durant (2014, p. 545) suggest psychosocial intervention as the primary method to treat the disorder. Careful choice of medications is considered to be the most effective measure of prevention (Barlow & Durant, 2014, p. 545; Skrobik, 2009, p. 587). Since the elderly are in delirium risk-group as they usually have many chronic diseases that require taking several pills at once, the healthcare providers and primary caregivers of older people should control the process of medication intake. The information provided in the scientific researches indicates that such neurocognitive disease as delirium can be controlled, prevented and in many cases successfully treated.

2. The perspectives on mental health law are different nowadays. Though laws are specialy written and changed to cover every particular case and be as tolerant to every patient and his or her family members as possible, some aspects of the problem seem to be forgotten and neglected. Barlow and Durant (2014, p. 571) describe one case in which treatment or at least making a diagnosis is vitally important since the person under consideration is behaving strangely and frighteningly. It is also reported that the very patient has significant behavioral changes for the worse (Barlow & Durant, 2014, p. 571). Despite all aspects mentioned, the man cannot be admitted to the hospital if his decision is involuntary. The mental health law supports his freedom. If he had hurt himself or anyone else, there would be no case to discuss as hurting someone due to psychiatric problems means straight compulsory admission to the appropriate institution.

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Yeung (2012, p. 41) reports that there is a similar law concerning mental healthcare delivery in China. The author of the article claims that the new law, which is aimed at preserving patients’ autonomy, can have serious outcomes (Yeung, 2012, p. 41). Bartlett and Sandland (2013, p. 12) focus on the issue of treatment. They question the aspect of treatment, inquiring why some people with mental disorders should receive therapy, whereas others can ignore the diagnosis and live as they want when the ways to solve the problem are found (Bartlett & Sandland, 2013, p. 12). Therefore, it can be concluded that mental health law has some “blank spots” to consider and change. Thinking of the patient’s autonomy, the legislators ignore the factor of necessity in some cases.  

3. These days people are suffering from many phobias that, accordinng to Barlow and Durant (2014, p. 145), make their life very uncomfortable. Animal phobia or, in other words, fear of some animals, is a typical phenomenon all over the world. Because of being scared of seeing or hearing a particular animal, people are afraid to go to some places where these representatives of fauna can be found. In more difficult cases, people suffering from animal phobia cannot read magazines or watch television as they might see the object of their fear there (Bartlett & Sandland, 2013, p. 145). Wrzesien et al. (2013, p. 80) indicate that around 5% of all people on the planet are scared of some animals and from 60 to 80% of these people are not subjected to any treatment. Moreover, this fear is not just an unpleasant sensation but a real phobia that causes many difficulties in life.

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In cases aforementioned, people need some kind of treatment in order to combat their disease or at least make it less apparent and all-defining. Wrzesien et al. (2013, p. 80) state that there are different methods developed to cure people from their phobias. The authors of this article, for instance, suggest using innovative technologies that allow seeing a frightening animal in some surrounding and controlling it (Wrzesien et al., 2013, p. 80). Botella et al. (2011, p. 218) advise using a specially designed mobile phone game to defeat cockroach phobia. Barlow and Durant (2014, p. 148-149) claim that there are various ways to treat phobias. One of them is establishing a direct close contact with the object which makes one scared (Barlow & Durant, 2014, p. 149). For this reason, despite the fact that phobias seem to be a deep-rooted fear in people’s consciousness, they can be treated.

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